Indian Missile Programe

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Tuesday, May 19, 2009

BHUBANESWAR: India on Tuesday successfully tested the nuclear capable Agni-II missile from a defence base in Orissa, official sources said.

The surface-to-surface missile with a range of over 2,000 km was test-fired from the Wheeler's Island near Dhamara in the district of Bhadrak, some 150 km from here at 10.06am.

The Agni II missile, which is a part of India's Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme, is 20 meters long.

Weighing 16 tonnes, the missile can carry a payload of around 1,000 kg and its range can also be increased to 3,000 km by reducing the payload.

http://thenews.jang.com.pk/updates.asp?id=78097

I think its time for Pakistan to increase the speed of its missile programe.

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AGNI-II fails to deliver desired results

Agni-II, countrys nuclear counter strike capability ballistic missile has reportedly failed to deliver desired result.

The trial was conducted from Wheeler Island, part of the integrated test range of Orissa coast on Tuesday at about 10 am.

Reliable sources at the Wheelers Island said the countdown was normal, liftoff was smooth and then disaster struck as the 2000 kms plus range Agni-II missile instead of traveling on the pre-determined trajectory started wandering midway.

The missile deviated from its path after the first stage separation and was meandering at an angle of 180 degree midway. Though it was coordinated to cover a distance of nearly 2000 km, within just 127 seconds it covered 203 km before plunging into the sea, said the source.

The guidance system can correct the missiles midway path deviation if it behaves erratically at an angle of 40 to 60 degree but not beyond that, said a defence scientist. The disaster might have happened due to design and manufacturing faults, he added.

Similarly on July 9, 2006, the maiden test of Agni-III had failed to achieve the target as technical snags were reported during the separation of the first and the second stage.

Agni-II missile was first tested on April 11, 1999, and inducted in the Army in 2004. The trial was conducted by the Army while scientists from DRDO provided the necessary logistical support. The unfortunate development will have a telling effect on the morale of the Army, said analysts.

Several attempts to contact Agni project director, Avinash Chander and ITR director, S P Dash turned futile. There was no official word even from DRDO on the test.

We are still analyzing the statistics about the flight performance and data from the launch pad and the three tracking stations are being thoroughtly examined, said a scientist, who is part of the missile programme. Several defence analysts have criticized the DRDO for the failure.

“Agni project is an established project. In the deployment stage if the missile behaves like this, can we afford to hold the country to ransom security-wise. There should be some sort of accountability from scientists doing the research and development of the DRDO,” said an analyst.

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There is the typical pattern that has appeared in recent years i.e. tests are announced as success but later on these were proved failures examples of Agni-III test and Brahmos tests are already in front of us so I would say that DRDO is continuing its traditions of declaring the tests as successful unless media and Indian forces are forced to bring the truth in front of everyone

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India upgrading its missile programme

Published: May 29, 2009

WASHINGTON - Engineers in India are designing cruise missiles to carry nuclear warheads, relying partly on

Russian missile-design assistance, a major American newspaper said in a report Thursday on Indian and

Pakistani nuclear programmes over whose expansions, it said, US officials have concerns.

"India is also trying to equip its Agni ballistic missiles with such warheads and to deploy them on submarines,"

The Washington Post said in report apparently marking the day on which Pakistan carried out its nuclear tests in

response to the Indian atomic blasts. "Its (India's) rudimentary missile-defence capability is slated for a major

upgrade next year." US intelligence and proliferation experts say India and Pakistan indicate their nuclear

programmes offer leverage in an arms race that has picked up and diversified similar to the US-USSR arms

race, the Post said.

"They are both going great guns on new systems, new materials; they are doing everything you would imagine,"

a former US intelligence official told the Post. Pakistan is expected to be ready to produce plutonium for its

nuclear arsenal sometime next year, the newspaper said despite denials by Pakistan of such reports. At the

same time, the newspaper cited US experts as saying that Pakistan's nuclear programme should not been seen

in isolation when New Delhi is advancing its systems as well as piling on to its huge array of weapons. "While

Pakistan's nuclear programme has lately attracted the most worry, because of the close proximity to the capital

of Taliban insurgents, many US experts say that it should not be considered in isolation from India's own nuclear

expansion," the Post said in the report in which it also focused on the Indian activities.

http://www.nation.com.pk/pakistan-news-newspaper-daily-english-online/Politics/29-May-2009/India-upgrading-its-missile-programme

How many kilometers will be the accuracy of the indian missiles? :)

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N-tipped Agni III set for fresh test

Hemant Kumar Rout

The Defence Research Development Organisation (DRDO) is set to test-fire India’s most powerful nuke-capable ballistic missile Agni-III. The China-specific missile would be test-fired from a defence base off the Orissa coast soon. Preparations were on for the crucial test, a source close to the Integrated Test Range (ITR) at Chandipur-on-sea, 15 km from Balasore, said today. Agni-III test-fire is seen as a deterrent to China’s growing missile power. `The country’s missile programme received a jolt on May 19 when the first training user-trials of the 2,000-km plus range Agni-II missile failed to yield the desired result. The focus now is on Agni-III and its test has become a prestige issue for the scientists involved in the project,’ the source added. Agni-III, which has a velocity of 5 km per second, is a new system, defence sources said. It is a short and stubby, two-stage missile. It weighs 48.3 tonnes and is 16.7 metres tall with an overall diameter of 1.8 metres. It can carry both conventional and nuclear warheads weighing around 1.5 tonnes. It will be propelled by solid fuels, facilitating swift deployment compared to missiles using a mix of solid and liquid fuels. Though the maiden test of the longest range missile in 2006 was a failure, its second trial in 2007 and third test in 2008 were successful. `It is ready for induction but it will require a few more tests before it can go for limited series production (LSP) trials by the armed forces. However, two more years will be required for its operational deployment,’ a scientist said on condition of anonymity. The missile is a deterrent to the Chinese missiles. A successful induction of Agni III will allow India to catch up with China’s nuclear strike capability in the next few years since its range is expected to be long enough to target major Chinese cities like Shanghai and Beijing. India’s ‘Pakistan-specific’ Agni-I and Agni-II missiles have already been inducted in the armed forces. `Our next project is Agni-V missile which is expected to have a strike range of about 5,000 km.

Agni-III, with China in range, to be tested

After basing Sukhoi-30MKI fighter jets in the North-East, India is now all set to conduct another test of the 3,500-km-range Agni-III

ballistic missile next month.

"Agni-III, a 16.7-metre tall missile with a lift-off weight of 50 tonnes, should be tested within a month, towards end-July. This will be another step towards inducting it into the armed forces,'' said top defence sources on Friday.

Once fully-ready by 2011-2012, Agni-III will provide India with the capability to strike deep into China, with cities like Shanghai and Beijing well within its potent reach.

India, incidentally, is also working on the 5,000-km-range Agni-V missile, which will have near-ICBM (intercontinental ballistic missile) capabilities, but it will be ready for its first test only by late-2010.

Asked about the Agni-V on Friday, defence minister A K Antony only said the government was taking "all steps'' to build "whatever capabilities'' were needed "as per changing threat perceptions'' to protect national security.

Both Agni-III and Agni-V are primarily designed to bolster India's "active credible deterrence posture'' against China, especially since it has a clear-cut "no-first use'' nuclear doctrine.

China's expanding nuclear and missile arsenal, of course, has even the US worried. The Chinese DF-31A ICBM, with a strike range of 11,270 km, for instance, can target any location in the continental US.

India's missile programme is rudimentary by these standards, and even lags behind Pakistan in certain aspects. In fact, only the Prithvi (150-350 km) and Agni-I (700-km) missiles, primarily meant for Pakistan, can be said to be fully operational in the armed forces till now.

The tri-Service Strategic Forces Command is still engaged in conducting "training user-trials'' of the 2,000-km Agni-II. The first such Agni-II trial last month "failed to meet the laid-down flight parameters'', say sources.

But defence scientists say they are not deterred by a flop or two. The first test of the rail-mobile Agni-III in July 2006 had flopped miserably, spurring them to ensure the second one in April 2007 and the third one in May 2008 were successful.

As for India's most ambitious missile till now, the Agni-V, the scientists are incorporating a third composite stage in the two-stage Agni-III, along with some advanced technologies like ring laser gyroscope and accelerator for navigation and guidance.

They want the solid-fuelled Agni-V, for which the government has sanctioned around Rs 2,500 crore, to be a canister-launch missile system to ensure it has the requisite operational flexibility to be fired from any part of the country.

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It doesn't matter if they are going to arm it with a nuke!

CEP of missiles used as nuclear delivery vehicles do matter a lot as both Pakistan and India have yet to test a high yield thermonuclear weapon to compensate for the inaccuracies of the missiles. This the precise reason why Pakistan was forced to start two medium range missiles Ghauri as interim missile system with capability to strike most of the Indian cities immediately and shaheen-I and Shaheen-II which incorporate a highly accurate terminal guidance system in a new maneuverable reentry vehicles. The improved accuracy will provide a substantially higher probability of target kill with smaller warheads and combination of improved accuracy and smaller warheads, along with Shaheen’s rapid response and penetration capability permits the destruction of critical, hardened-sensitive targets with small yield weapons. With its active radar terminal guidance unit in the warhead, Shaheen series can achieve high accuracy of about 30-40 m like US PershingII.

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CEP of missiles used as nuclear delivery vehicles do matter a lot as both Pakistan and India have yet to test a high yield thermonuclear weapon to compensate for the inaccuracies of the missiles. This the precise reason why Pakistan was forced to start two medium range missiles Ghauri as interim missile system with capability to strike most of the Indian cities immediately and shaheen-I and Shaheen-II which incorporate a highly accurate terminal guidance system in a new maneuverable reentry vehicles. The improved accuracy will provide a substantially higher probability of target kill with smaller warheads and combination of improved accuracy and smaller warheads, along with Shaheen’s rapid response and penetration capability permits the destruction of critical, hardened-sensitive targets with small yield weapons. With its active radar terminal guidance unit in the warhead, Shaheen series can achieve high accuracy of about 30-40 m like US PershingII.

I think it is less then 30 to 40 m, its a maximum probability of error, if you remember few years ago Shaheen-I test video in which site of impact was shown the impact was hardly 5 to 6 meters from the red flag on desert. That footage was broadcasted in PTV khabarnama and will be in their records.

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I think that impact video was of Ghaznavi (SRBM) not Shaheen I

can anyone confirm / deny ??

thanx

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I think that impact video was of Ghaznavi (SRBM) not Shaheen I

can anyone confirm / deny ??

thanx

IIRC it was Sahheen.

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This is what I am able to find out so far

PTV showing the detonations on ground zero from the 8 October

Unbelievable videos on PTV showing the detonations on ground zero from the 8 October and today's tests.

Incidentally, the 8 October test was a ground-burst test of the warhead detonation whereas today's test was an air-burst test. For those who care to know, ground-burst tests are conducted for conventional warheads and air-burst for nuclear warheads.

And as Muhammad Hasan rightly noted, ground zero was marked with a red flag and the warhead detonated within 50 metres in both instances - I think roughly 40-50 metres for the ground test and the air burst seemed closer to 20-30 metres. The air burst took place at approximately 200 metres above ground in my estimation. The CEP of the air-burst is ascertainable by measuring the distance of the air-burst cloud to a single white smoke column dropped from the air down to ground zero as was done in today's test.

Ground zero seemed to be in Balochistan going by the sand dunes and rock mountains in the background.

I wish somebody could capture the PTV stills and post them - we could then calculate more accurately the CEP.

All in all, the accuracy of the Shaheen-1 was unbelievable - made more so by PTV capturing the detonations on ground zero. I must admit it definitely has a CEP of 50 m rather than 250 m which I thought before today's video.

Just saw the video of Shaheen-1 test firing

The most interesting thing regarding this test firing video is the PTV showed the targe area, which was enlighted by red flag. The Missile dig a big hole only 30-40 meters away from the red flag ! The video showed the missile exploding and the mushroom type smoke in result.

I hope you guys will be looking for that video too

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India Test fires its Longest Range Nuclear Capable Agni-III Ballistic Missile

Today India has successfully test-fired its longest range nuclear-capable Agni-III ballistic missile for the fourth time from the Wheeler Island off the coast of Orissa. Test of the Agni-III ballistic missile was carried out at 1050 hours today.

According to the Defence Ministry spokesman Sitanshu Kar, Agni-III ballistic missile was able to hit the target with pin-point accuracy and met all the mission objectives. Two Indian navy ships located near the target tracked and witnessed the missile hitting it accurately, he said. During today's launch, the missile was fired from a mobile rail launcher, sources in Balasore said.

Indian Defence Minister, A K Antony has congratulated DRDO Chief V K Saraswat and the scientists involved in the Agni-III project on the "remarkable success" of the missile test. Defence Ministry spokesman Sitanshu Kar said the launch was part of the pre-induction trial and "now the missile system will be fully inducted into the armed forces".

Agni-III ballistic missile is 17-metre long Agni-III with 2-metre diameter and a launch weight of 50 tonnes. Agni-III is a solid-propelled, two-stage missile that is designed by DRDO to carry nuclear warheads weighing up to 1.5 tonnes.Agni-III ballistic missile is India's longest-range missile, designed to reach 3,000 kilometers (1,900 miles). Once operational, Agni-III will provide India with the capability to strike deep into China.

"During the course of the flight, the missile reached a peak height of 350 kms and re-entered the atmosphere successfully tolerating the skin temperatures of nearly 3000 degree Celsius," Defence Ministry spokesman Sitanshu Kar said. The first trial of Agni-III was conducted on July 9, 2006 and it had ended in a failure. But the subsequent two tests on April 12, 2007 and May 7, 2008 were successful.

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5,000-km range Agni-V to be tested in a year: DRDO

With Agni-III all set for induction after three successful trials, India is gearing up to test its 5,000-km range Agni-V ballistic missile in a year's time, a senior Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) official said Wednesday.

The Agni-V has moved out of the drawing board and currently the technical evaluation of the sub-system is being carried out, DRDO chief and scientific advisor to defence minister V.K. Saraswat said.

'The first launch will be in an year's time then couple of tests and then we can think of induction. We are confident that the building blocks (for the Agni-III missiles) are in fairly matured stage,' Saraswat told reporters here.

The three-stage missile will be similar to Agni-III in design and diameter, with its length five metres more than it.

'Agni-III design is frozen... Agni-V has crossed material cutting stage and subsystem testing is going on. Agni-V is derivative of Agni-III. Practically it is the same missile but it is five metres longer and one tonne heavier. Its navigation system is same.

'Sixty percent missile is available and we are just adding another stage. It will be a three-stage missile and it is the first time we will be building a three-stage missile,' Saraswat added.

Agni-III, with its range of 3,500 km, is ready for induction after successful trial conducted by the Strategic Forces Command Feb 7.

Programme director Avinash Chander said: 'Agni-III has completed three successful trials. Now we can start doing the induction process. It is 100 percent indigenous with more than 80 percent coming from the industries.'

Saraswat said the technology of Agni-III is better than China.

'Agni-III technology-wise is better than China. Accuracy is better,' Saraswat added.

Both stages of Agni-III are powered by solid propellants. It is 17 metres long, has a diameter of two metres and a launch weight of 50 tonnes. It can carry payloads weighing 1.5 tonnes.

http://sify.com/news/5-000-km-range-Agni-V-to-be-tested-in-a-year-DRDO-news-National-kckuuhbccbe.html

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Saraswat said the technology of Agni-III is better than China.

'Agni-III technology-wise is better than China. Accuracy is better,' Saraswat added.

Is it normal practice to compare a missile with an entire country? Would have made more sense if he mentioned what Chinese missiles it was better than!! (if any)

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China's anti-ship missile not a threat: Navy chief

New Delhi Dismissing China's anti-ship missile programme as a threat to Indian warships, Navy chief Admiral Nirmal Verma on Wednesday said it would be a difficult task to even spot the vessels in the vast expanse of high seas.

"Targeting ships at high seas is not an easy task or as simple as land warfare," Admiral Verma told reporters here on the sidelines of a seminar on aircraft carriers organised by the National Maritime Foundation here.

"There are hundreds and thousands of ships in the sea at any given time. It is extremely important to spot the ship before targeting it. There are limitations in terms of maritime reconnaissance and long-range searches," Verma said when asked about the threat posed by Chinese Anti-ship Ballistic Missile Programme.

He said it was "a complex problem" to use a conventional missile against a moving target at high seas.

Earlier, addressing the seminar, the Navy chief said aircraft carriers were expensive and there were questions on their affordability and survivability due to their large size while at sea.

"Some event talk about carrying out land-based missile attacks against an aircraft carrier. We must weigh this against the difficulties of targeting a mobile target out at sea," he said, noting that carriers can move 600 nautical miles a day, which translates into one million square nautical miles of ocean area which an adversary has to search.

Verma said this was a Herculean task for even the best of navies, satellite and aerial surveillance.

"Should an adversary manage to evade a plethora of air, surface and sub-surface escorts and be capable of hitting a carrier, sinking it or putting a carrier out of action is by no means easy," he said.

He said the sheer size, build philosophy and damage control features provided an aircraft carrier an amazing capacity to absorb damage.

On the huge cost involved in acquiring an aircraft carrier, Verma said the long range of capability a carrier provided a nation with during times of peace and war more than justified the costs.

He said an aircraft carrier provided surveillance cover in nearly two lakh sq nautical miles of ocean area and the airspace above.

Asked about the depleting strength of the Navy's submarine fleet, Verma said at present India had only 16 submarines and the number was likely to go further down due to decommissioning of some ships in the near future.

"At present, the number is 16 submarines. In the coming years, some decommissioning will take place," he said.

Noting that India was successful in stretching the life of not only aircraft carriers, but also other ships, he said those efforts would continue, as it was found to be an effective system for upgrades.

On the delay in Scorpene series missiles, the Navy chief said his force was looking for a second line of production for the submarine, as there "is a requirement for upping speed" of construction.

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I think hitting a sat in space is more difficult and they did that.

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India has moved so far ahead in developing and deploying space based platforms that even if Islamabad were to invest the necessary funding in R&D for the next 5-10 years we still wouldn't be able to catch up with our neighbours!

New Sat Will Boost India's Surveillance, EW Plans

By vivek raghuvanshi

Published: 12 Feb 2010 11:56 Print | Email

NEW DELHI - India is developing an advanced military surveillance satellite capable of picking up a conversation between two telephones as well as taking high-resolution pictures.

The Communication-Centric Intelligence Satellite (CCI-Sat) will be launched into orbit in 2014, said a senior scientist at the state-owned Defence Electronics and Research Laboratory, Hyderabad, which is developing the $25 million satellite.

Related Topics

Asia & Pacific Rim

Air Warfare

Land Warfare

Naval Warfare

The CCI-Sat is part of a high-priority plan to develop electronic warfare (EW) systems for India's Army, Navy and Air Force, the scientist said.

Meanwhile, India is ready to put into orbit another homemade satellite, Cartosat-2B, in the next two months. That satellite also will be used for military purposes, Defence Electronics and Research Laboratory sources said.

Last year, India launched its made-in-India RISAT-2 military satellite, which is keeping a high-resolution eye on the country's borders and coastline in case of terrorist infiltrations.

Cartosat-2, like the U.S. satellite Ikonos, delivers 1-meter-resolution imagery, second only to the Quickbird, which offers an incredibly close 60-centimeter resolution - all from a distance of 800 kilometers to 900 kilometers above the Earth, said a scientist from the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO).

The ISRO and Defence Research and Development Organisation are collaborating on a dedicated naval satellite that will have a 1,000-nautical-mile footprint over the Indian Ocean. India also plans to launch that satellite this year.

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He forgot to add "indiagenous", apparently too many russians must have been seen around the firing ramp...

India successfully tests BrahMos cruise missile

Updated at: 1545 PST, Sunday, March 21, 2010

BHUBANESHWAR: India today became the first country to have a 'manoeuvrable' supersonic cruise missile when it successfully test-fired the vertical-launch version of 290-km range BrahMos from a warship in the Bay of Bengal off the Orissa coast.

"The vertical-launch version of missile was launched at 1130 hours today from Indian Navy ship INS Ranvir and it manoeuvred successfully hitting the target ship. It was a perfect hit and a perfect mission," BrahMos aerospace chief A Sivathanu Pillai said.

After today’s test, India has become the first and only country in the world to have a "manoeuvrable supersonic cruise missile in its inventory," he said in New Delhi.

In separate messages, President Pratibha Patil and Defence Minister A K Antony congratulated the BrahMos scientists and the navy for the successful test-launch.

http://thenews.jang.com.pk/updates.asp?id=101228

Edited by A Khan

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India tests two nuclear capable missiles

Saturday, 27 Mar, 2010

BHUBANESWAR: India successfully tested two short-range nuclear-capable missiles from two sites off its eastern coast on Saturday, a defence ministry official said.

India, which tested nuclear weapons in 1998, has developed a series of nuclear and conventional missile systems as part of a programme begun in 1983.

Saturday's first test was the launch of the Dhanush, which has a range of 350 kilometres and was fired from a naval ship in the Bay of Bengal off the shores of the state of Orissa.

The second missile was the Prithvi (Earth)-II, launched from Chandipur-on-Sea Integrated Test Range, 200 kilometres northeast of Bhubaneswar, the capital of Orissa.

“The tests were successful and met all the mission objectives,” S.P. Dash, director of the Integrated Test Range, told AFP.

The Dhanush, which means bow in Hindi, is a variant of the ground-to-ground Prithvi missile, developed for the Indian navy.

Both variants can carry nuclear and conventional warheads and have been developed at home.

The 8.5-metre Prithvi-II missile has a range of 150-350 kilometres and can carry a one-tonne payload.

Last month, India announced it would test a nuclear-capable missile with a range of over 5,000 kilometres within a year.

India has developed an array of weapons systems for reaching potential targets in neighbouring Pakistan and China.

India's current longest-range nuclear-capable missile, Agni-III, can travel a maximum of 3,500 kilometres.

Pakistan, with which India has fought three wars since their partition and independence six decades ago, has said India's missile development programme could trigger a new arms race in the region.

http://www.dawn.com/wps/wcm/connect/dawn-content-library/dawn/news/world/04-india-missile-test-qs-08

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Another test:

India launches ‘Agni-1’ ballistic missile

Updated at: 1710 PST, Sunday, March 28, 2010

NEW DEHLI: Following test fire of 'Prithvi-2' and 'Dhanush' missile, India today launched another intermediate ballistic missile 'Agni-1' in the last 24 hours from Wheelers Island in Orissa.

Integrated Test Range (ITR) sources said the launch of 'Agni-I' was carried out by the Indian Army as part of its training exercise and the operations were monitored by Defence Research Development Organisation (DRDO) Director General Dr V K Saraswat and 'Agni' Programme Director Avinash Chander besides, DRDL Director P Venugopal.

According to ITR Director S P Dash, the Radars and EOTS Stations located along the coast of Orissa have tracked the performance of the 'Agni-I' missile.

http://thenews.jang.com.pk/updates.asp?id=101685

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The embarrassing malfunction of the Prithvi target missile that ended up aborting India's Advanced Air Defence (AAD) interceptor missile test on March 15, was caused by the material malfunction of a minor component in the flight control system, scientists associated with the investigation have told LiveFist. While analysis is still on to confirm precisely which component or components failed -- resulting in the Prithvi aborting ascent towards desired altitude and instead diving towards the Bay of Bengal -- the investigation team has put it down to poor quality assurance, a malady that caused a lot of heartache in the last few years.

Quality control is aggravating things immeasurably in India's missile programme. Missiles that are absolutely fine on the drawing board -- and successful in most tests -- are ending up with a dud reputation as a result of poor quality assurance of minor components, some of them laughably minor, but thunderingly significant at ballistic missile velocities, as was made shudderingly clear in the Agni-III's disastrous debut test and the Agni-2 test in November last year.

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The Indians brag about how "indigenous" their Missile programs are and point fingers at Pakistanis for "copying and importing" technologies from other. Well lets find out the origin of their missile programs.

India: Missile Helpers

The Risk Report

Volume 1 Number 1 (January-February 1995) Page 8

India did not build its missiles alone. The world's leading rocket producers gave essential help in research, development and manufacture.

France

Licensed production of sounding rockets in India

Supplied the liquid-fuel Viking rocket engine, now the "Vikas" engine of the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) second stage

Tested Indian-produced Vikas engine in France

Germany

Delivered measurement and calibration equipment to ISRO (Indian Space Research Organization) laboratories

Trained Indians in high-altitude tests of rocket motors and in glass and carbon fiber composites for rocket engine housings, nozzles and nose cones

Designed high-altitude rocket test facilities

Conducted wind tunnel tests for Satellite Launch Vehicle - SLV-3 rocket

Developed radio frequency interferometer for rocket guidance

Developed computers for rocket payload guidance based on U.S. microprocessor

Supplied documentation for a filament-winding machine to make rocket engine nozzles and housings

Helped build Vikas rocket engine test facilities

Designed hypersonic wind tunnel and heat transfer facilities

Supplied rocket motor segment rings for PSLV

Russia

Supplied surface-to-air missiles which became the models for the Prithvi missile and the second stage of the Agni medium-range missile

Sold seven cryogenic rocket engines

United Kingdom

Supplied components for Imarat Research Center, home to the Agni missile

Supplied magnetrons for radar guidance and detonation systems to Defense Research and Development Laboratory

United States

Launched U.S.-built rockets from Thumba test range

Trained Dr. Abdul Kalam, designer of the Agni

Introduced India to the Scout rocket, the model for the Satellite Launch Vehicle - SLV-3 rocket and the Agni first stage

Sent technical reports on the Scout rocket to Homi Bhabha, the head of the Indian Atomic Energy Commission

Sold equipment that can simulate vibrations on a warhead

indianmissile.gif

India's Missile Shopping List

The Risk Report

Volume 1 Number 1 (January-February 1995) Page 9

India is still weak in many vital rocket technologies, and needs help in composites, electronics, computers, sensors, navigation, guidance, control and propulsion, according to a Pentagon study which ranks countries' military capabilities. To bolster its efforts in these areas, India is looking for imports.

Composites from America dried up in 1992 when the United States sanctioned the Indian Space Research Organization. Lightweight and heat-resistant composite materials are ideal for making rocket motor cases and nozzles. They improve a rocket's range as well as its engine thrust. The U.S. sanctions also dried up ISRO's American sources of application-specific integrated circuits, which are needed for rocket and missile guidance.

India also needs high quality gyroscopes and accelerometers for mis-sile guidance. India has some gyroscopes of its own, but Indian engineers are seeking better equipment "to improve the accuracy and stabilization of their missile systems," says one State Department analyst. India recently obtained U.S. ring laser gyro-scopes for fighter planes, but the gyros are difficult to adapt for missiles. "I don't think India can get there without a lot of help from the outside," the analyst says.

India also hopes to get high quality accelerometers to measure missile speed more accurately. In addition, India is shopping for laser radars to improve guidance, although India has not approached U.S. companies to buy them recently.

Computers are also on India's shopping list, according to the Pentagon study, which says that India has "limited" capability in digital computing, "no capability" in hybrid computing, but "capabilities in some critical elements" of advanced computing.

According to the Pentagon, computers play "a pivotal role in the development and deployment of missiles and missile systems." Digital computers can predict the behavior of entire weapon systems and are required to process space-borne sensor data in real time, the study says. The recent decontrol of computers may have helped India fill some of its needs.

The Link Between Space Launch and Missile Technology]

Presentation by Gary Milhollin

at the

Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies

Honolulu, Hawaii

March 16, 2000

Introduction - History

The nuclear and missile arms race in South Asia is getting a lot of attention since the test explosions in 1998. The history of missile development there illustrates the close connection between space launch and missile technology.

In 1963, NASA began the Indian rocket program. NASA launched a U.S. sounding rocket from India's first test range, which the United States helped design. We also trained the first groups of Indian rocket scientists. NASA invited them to NASA's Wallops Island test site located southeast of Washington, DC in Virginia.

While at NASA, Mr. A.P. Kalam, a member of the Indian delegation, learned about the U.S. Scout rocket, which was being flown at Wallops Island. The Scout was the only four-stage, solid-fueled, small payload space launcher in the world. Indian engineers saw the Scout's blueprints during their visit. Two years later, the head of India's Atomic Energy Commission asked NASA for design information about the Scout. Mr. Kalam then proceeded to build India's first big rocket, the SLV-3, which became the only other four-stage, solid-fueled, small payload space launcher in the world. It was an exact copy of the Scout. The first stage of the Scout then became the first stage of India's first large ballistic missile, the Agni-I. The Agni-I's second stage was liquid-fueled, and was based on a surface-to-air missile called the SA-2 that India bought from Russia.

France also helped India master liquid-fuel technology by selling India the technology used to build the "Viking" engine used on the Ariane space launcher. India calls its version the "Vikas." The Agni also needed a guidance system. The German Space Agency obliged with a long tutorial in rocket guidance, which allowed India to develop a guidance system and learn how to produce its components (gyroscopes, accelerometers and so forth). The German Space Agency also tested a model of the first stage of the SLV-3 in one of its wind tunnels in Cologne and helped India build its own rocket test facilities. Germany also trained Indians in how to make composite materials.

Thus, India's biggest nuclear-capable missile is an international product. Under the mantle of peaceful space cooperation, the United States, France and Germany all helped create the most advanced nuclear missile in South Asia.

The story in Pakistan is similar. NASA launched Pakistan's first rocket in 1962. Pakistan's project was also led by the head of Pakistan's Atomic Energy Commission. We must wonder what was going through NASA's mind at this time - it keeps getting requests for space cooperation from the heads of atomic energy commissions. Apparently NASA thought this was normal. NASA also trained Pakistani rocket scientists at Wallops Island, and launched rockets in Pakistan until 1970.

Interchangeability: launchers being turned into missiles and missiles being turned into launchers

What did India learn from its foreign helpers?

- Manufacture of rocket propellant (solid and liquid);

- Manufacture of rocket engines (solid and liquid);

- Manufacture of air frames, motor cases, liners, and insulation;

- Manufacture of thrust vector control systems;

- Manufacture of exhaust nozzles;

- Manufacture of staging mechanisms;

- Manufacture of payload separation mechanisms;

- Manufacture of strap-on boosters;

- Manufacture of ground support and launch equipment;

- How to conduct system integration;

- How to conduct failure analysis and testing of components.

All of this is identical to the knowledge needed for building a missile. The same technology is used in both. In effect, the West taught India how to do just about everything necessary to build a big rocket and put a payload into orbit. It has been said that an ICBM is a space launcher whose orbit intersects the earth. Once a country is able to deploy a large satellite in a precise orbit, it has mastered the technologies needed to hit a major city with a ballistic missile.

Guidance is the main difference, but even here there are great similarities. According to the study on U.S. high-tech assistance to China published last year by the Cox Committee, most launcher guidance systems would be accurate enough to deliver a nuclear weapon to a large city. The committee noted that:

- the guidance system used on China's Long March 2 and 3 space rockets is also used on China's CSS-4 (DF-5) ballistic missile, which is targeted on the United States;

- the guidance system used on China's "Smart Dispenser" to deploy two Iridium communication satellites is also used on the M-9 (CSS-6) and M-11 (CSS-X-7) missiles targeted on Taiwan;

- the lessons China has learned in improving the guidance of its space launchers will also help it improve the guidance of its next generation of ballistic missiles. The same people design both systems. The speed, direction, and altitude at which you release a ballistic warhead determines where it lands. The same factors determine the orbit in which you insert a satellite.

Re-entry is also a challenge. You must, of course, design and produce a re-entry vehicle capable of surviving the stress of passing through the atmosphere.

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The Indians brag about how "indigenous" their Missile programs are and point fingers at Pakistanis for "copying and importing" technologies from other. Well lets find out the origin of their missile programs.

[ATTACH]12172[/ATTACH]

India: Missile Helpers

The Risk Report

Volume 1 Number 1 (January-February 1995) Page 8

India did not build its missiles alone. The world's leading rocket producers gave essential help in research, development and manufacture.

France

Licensed production of sounding rockets in India

Supplied the liquid-fuel Viking rocket engine, now the "Vikas" engine of the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) second stage

Tested Indian-produced Vikas engine in France

Germany

Delivered measurement and calibration equipment to ISRO (Indian Space Research Organization) laboratories

Trained Indians in high-altitude tests of rocket motors and in glass and carbon fiber composites for rocket engine housings, nozzles and nose cones

Designed high-altitude rocket test facilities

Conducted wind tunnel tests for Satellite Launch Vehicle - SLV-3 rocket

Developed radio frequency interferometer for rocket guidance

Developed computers for rocket payload guidance based on U.S. microprocessor

Supplied documentation for a filament-winding machine to make rocket engine nozzles and housings

Helped build Vikas rocket engine test facilities

Designed hypersonic wind tunnel and heat transfer facilities

Supplied rocket motor segment rings for PSLV

Russia

Supplied surface-to-air missiles which became the models for the Prithvi missile and the second stage of the Agni medium-range missile

Sold seven cryogenic rocket engines

United Kingdom

Supplied components for Imarat Research Center, home to the Agni missile

Supplied magnetrons for radar guidance and detonation systems to Defense Research and Development Laboratory

United States

Launched U.S.-built rockets from Thumba test range

Trained Dr. Abdul Kalam, designer of the Agni

Introduced India to the Scout rocket, the model for the Satellite Launch Vehicle - SLV-3 rocket and the Agni first stage

Sent technical reports on the Scout rocket to Homi Bhabha, the head of the Indian Atomic Energy Commission

Sold equipment that can simulate vibrations on a warhead

indianmissile.gif

India's Missile Shopping List

The Risk Report

Volume 1 Number 1 (January-February 1995) Page 9

India is still weak in many vital rocket technologies, and needs help in composites, electronics, computers, sensors, navigation, guidance, control and propulsion, according to a Pentagon study which ranks countries' military capabilities. To bolster its efforts in these areas, India is looking for imports.

Composites from America dried up in 1992 when the United States sanctioned the Indian Space Research Organization. Lightweight and heat-resistant composite materials are ideal for making rocket motor cases and nozzles. They improve a rocket's range as well as its engine thrust. The U.S. sanctions also dried up ISRO's American sources of application-specific integrated circuits, which are needed for rocket and missile guidance.

India also needs high quality gyroscopes and accelerometers for mis-sile guidance. India has some gyroscopes of its own, but Indian engineers are seeking better equipment "to improve the accuracy and stabilization of their missile systems," says one State Department analyst. India recently obtained U.S. ring laser gyro-scopes for fighter planes, but the gyros are difficult to adapt for missiles. "I don't think India can get there without a lot of help from the outside," the analyst says.

India also hopes to get high quality accelerometers to measure missile speed more accurately. In addition, India is shopping for laser radars to improve guidance, although India has not approached U.S. companies to buy them recently.

Computers are also on India's shopping list, according to the Pentagon study, which says that India has "limited" capability in digital computing, "no capability" in hybrid computing, but "capabilities in some critical elements" of advanced computing.

According to the Pentagon, computers play "a pivotal role in the development and deployment of missiles and missile systems." Digital computers can predict the behavior of entire weapon systems and are required to process space-borne sensor data in real time, the study says. The recent decontrol of computers may have helped India fill some of its needs.

The Link Between Space Launch and Missile Technology]

Presentation by Gary Milhollin

at the

Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies

Honolulu, Hawaii

March 16, 2000

Introduction - History

The nuclear and missile arms race in South Asia is getting a lot of attention since the test explosions in 1998. The history of missile development there illustrates the close connection between space launch and missile technology.

In 1963, NASA began the Indian rocket program. NASA launched a U.S. sounding rocket from India's first test range, which the United States helped design. We also trained the first groups of Indian rocket scientists. NASA invited them to NASA's Wallops Island test site located southeast of Washington, DC in Virginia.

While at NASA, Mr. A.P. Kalam, a member of the Indian delegation, learned about the U.S. Scout rocket, which was being flown at Wallops Island. The Scout was the only four-stage, solid-fueled, small payload space launcher in the world. Indian engineers saw the Scout's blueprints during their visit. Two years later, the head of India's Atomic Energy Commission asked NASA for design information about the Scout. Mr. Kalam then proceeded to build India's first big rocket, the SLV-3, which became the only other four-stage, solid-fueled, small payload space launcher in the world. It was an exact copy of the Scout. The first stage of the Scout then became the first stage of India's first large ballistic missile, the Agni-I. The Agni-I's second stage was liquid-fueled, and was based on a surface-to-air missile called the SA-2 that India bought from Russia.

France also helped India master liquid-fuel technology by selling India the technology used to build the "Viking" engine used on the Ariane space launcher. India calls its version the "Vikas." The Agni also needed a guidance system. The German Space Agency obliged with a long tutorial in rocket guidance, which allowed India to develop a guidance system and learn how to produce its components (gyroscopes, accelerometers and so forth). The German Space Agency also tested a model of the first stage of the SLV-3 in one of its wind tunnels in Cologne and helped India build its own rocket test facilities. Germany also trained Indians in how to make composite materials.

Thus, India's biggest nuclear-capable missile is an international product. Under the mantle of peaceful space cooperation, the United States, France and Germany all helped create the most advanced nuclear missile in South Asia.

The story in Pakistan is similar. NASA launched Pakistan's first rocket in 1962. Pakistan's project was also led by the head of Pakistan's Atomic Energy Commission. We must wonder what was going through NASA's mind at this time - it keeps getting requests for space cooperation from the heads of atomic energy commissions. Apparently NASA thought this was normal. NASA also trained Pakistani rocket scientists at Wallops Island, and launched rockets in Pakistan until 1970.

Interchangeability: launchers being turned into missiles and missiles being turned into launchers

What did India learn from its foreign helpers?

- Manufacture of rocket propellant (solid and liquid);

- Manufacture of rocket engines (solid and liquid);

- Manufacture of air frames, motor cases, liners, and insulation;

- Manufacture of thrust vector control systems;

- Manufacture of exhaust nozzles;

- Manufacture of staging mechanisms;

- Manufacture of payload separation mechanisms;

- Manufacture of strap-on boosters;

- Manufacture of ground support and launch equipment;

- How to conduct system integration;

- How to conduct failure analysis and testing of components.

All of this is identical to the knowledge needed for building a missile. The same technology is used in both. In effect, the West taught India how to do just about everything necessary to build a big rocket and put a payload into orbit. It has been said that an ICBM is a space launcher whose orbit intersects the earth. Once a country is able to deploy a large satellite in a precise orbit, it has mastered the technologies needed to hit a major city with a ballistic missile.

Guidance is the main difference, but even here there are great similarities. According to the study on U.S. high-tech assistance to China published last year by the Cox Committee, most launcher guidance systems would be accurate enough to deliver a nuclear weapon to a large city. The committee noted that:

- the guidance system used on China's Long March 2 and 3 space rockets is also used on China's CSS-4 (DF-5) ballistic missile, which is targeted on the United States;

- the guidance system used on China's "Smart Dispenser" to deploy two Iridium communication satellites is also used on the M-9 (CSS-6) and M-11 (CSS-X-7) missiles targeted on Taiwan;

- the lessons China has learned in improving the guidance of its space launchers will also help it improve the guidance of its next generation of ballistic missiles. The same people design both systems. The speed, direction, and altitude at which you release a ballistic warhead determines where it lands. The same factors determine the orbit in which you insert a satellite.

Re-entry is also a challenge. You must, of course, design and produce a re-entry vehicle capable of surviving the stress of passing through the atmosphere.

post-8717-136479019688.gif

Edited by S. Suleman

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India's missiles - With a little help from our friends:

By Gary Milhollin

Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists - November 1989, pp. 31-35

Last May 22, India became the first country to test a strategic missile derived from a civilian space program. The missile's first-stage rocket motor, heat shield, and guidance system all came from India's space effort -- generously launched and sustained by foreign help.

Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi claimed that the missile, called "Agni" (fire), is "an R&D vehicle, not a weapons system." Then he qualified the assertion. "Agni is not a nuclear weapons system," he said. "What Agni does is to afford us the option of developing the ability to deliver non-nuclear weapons with high precision at long ranges."

In the May test, the missile reportedly flew 625 miles. But it is designed to carry a one-ton payload 1,500 miles, far enough to hit cities in southern China. Carrying a half-ton atomic bomb, the Agni would be able to fly about 2,200 miles, far enough to hit Beijing.

Whether Agni eventually carries nuclear or conventional weapons, the missile should destroy any illusions about sharing technology in the interest of peaceful uses of outer space. The story of the Agni's development shows how difficult it is to separate civilian and military uses of technology, and just how futile may be the recent, belated attempts to control the proliferation of military missile technology. A control regime established by seven Western nations in 1987 seeks to prevent precisely this sort of development. [see the June 1988 Bulletin.] Yet the regime has no provisions for enforcement, and the Indian program continued full speed ahead, with some foreign - particularly West German - cooperation, after the regime was adopted.

Lessons in America:

Agni's foreign ancestry dates from the 1960s. In November 1963, the United States began India's space program by launching a U.S. sounding rocket from Indian soil. (Sounding rockets fly straight up into the atmosphere to conduct scientific experiments. They are too small to launch satellites.) The United States was followed by others. Between 1963 and 1975, more than 350 U.S., French, Soviet, and British sounding rockets were launched from India's Thumba Range,[1] which the United States helped design. Thumba's first group of Indian engineers had learned rocket launching and range operation in the United States.

Among them was the Agni's chief designer, A. J. P. Abdul Kalam. In 1963-64, he spent four months in training in the United States. He visited NASA's Langley Research Center in Virginia, where the U.S. Scout rocket was conceived, and the Wallops Island Flight Center on the Virginia coast, where the Scout was being flown. The Scout was a low-cost, reliable satellite launcher that NASA had developed for orbiting small payloads.

Soon afterward, in 1965, the Indian government asked NASA how much it would cost and how long it would take to develop an Indian version of the Scout, and whether the United States would help. NASA replied that the Scout was "available . . . for purchase . . . in connection with scientific research," but warned that "transfer of this technology . . . would be a matter for determination by the Department of State under Munitions Control."[2] NASA nevertheless sent India technical reports on the Scout's design, which was unclassified. India's request should have raised some eyebrows: it came from Homi Bhabha, head of the Indian Atomic Energy Commission.

But Kalam had the information he needed. He returned to India and built the SLV-3 (Space Launch Vehicle), India's first satellite launcher. Its design is virtually identical to the Scout's. Both rockets are 23 meters long, use four similar solid-fuel stages and "open loop" guidance, and lift a 40-kilogram payload into low earth orbit. The SLV's 30-foot first stage would later become the first stage of the Agni.

NASA officials say U.S. aid to India in rocketry was limited to the program in the 1960s. In 1988, however, the United States agreed to supply an advanced ring laser gyroscope to help guide a new Indian fighter plane.[3] It is not clear what will prevent India from using it to guide missiles. The highly accurate device is essentially solid state, making it easy to adapt to the demands of missile acceleration.

French lessons: liquid fuel

France also launched sounding rockets from India, and in the late 1960s allowed India to begin building "Centaure" sounding rockets under license from Sud Aviation. But France's main contribution has been in the field of liquid propulsion. Under a license from France's Societe Europeene de Propulsion (SEP), India is building its own version of the Viking high-thrust liquid rocket motor, used on the European Space Agency's Ariane satellite launcher.[4] Indian engineers helped develop the Viking in the mid-1970s, then began a program of their own. India has now built an experimental model of the Viking engine, called the Vikas.

The training in liquid propulsion seems to have paid off. Just over a year before testing the Agni, Kalam tested a smaller predecessor, the "Prithvi" (earth), which uses a liquid-propelled motor to carry a one-ton payload 150 miles. It resembles the widely sold Soviet Scud-B. Indian sources say that the Agni's second stage is a shortened version of the Prithvi.[5]

A German intensive tutorial:

The aid of the United States and France, however, was quickly dwarfed by West German help in the 1970s and 1980s. Germany gave India help in three indispensable missile technologies: guidance, rocket testing, and the use of composite materials. All were supposed to be for the space program, but all were equally useful for military missiles.

The German government's aerospace agency DLR (Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Luftfahrt und Raumfahrt e.V.) began tutoring India in rocket guidance in 1976.[6] The first step was to put a German interferometer on an Indian sounding rocket. An interferometer works by using antennas placed at different locations on the rocket to measure the phase of a radio signal received from the ground. The phase difference among the antennas reveals their relative positions on the rocket and thus the rocket's attitude, which can be monitored and corrected from the ground. The first launch of an Indian rocket with a German interferometer was in 1978. By 1981 the project had been expanded to include an on-board DLR microprocessor. In April 1982, India tested its own version of the same interferometer.

The next step was to make a navigation system that did not depend on signals from the ground, one that could guide a payload through space by determining its position and speed at any moment. The "autonomous payload control system," which India proposed in July 1981, would provide "full autonomous navigation capability to spaceborne sensors," determining "position, velocity, attitude, and precision time in a real-time mode." India would supply the rockets and satellites; Germany would provide the brains of the guidance system. The key component would be an on-board computer, using a microprocessor based on the Motorola family M 68000, and the software to run it.

It must be noted that an inertial navigation system that can guide satellites can also guide warheads. The United States used NASA's experience in guiding the Titan II transtage, a "bus" designed for multiple satellite launchings, to develop a bus that would accurately deliver small nuclear warheads.[7]

The German-Indian plan was carried out. By January 1982, the two countries had agreed on a series of joint projects for the program. But at the same time, India announced that it was designing a new navigation system for its own space rockets: it would replace the "open loop" system used on its first launcher, the SLV-3, with a "closed loop" system for its Advanced Space Launch Vehicle and its Polar Space Launch Vehicle. An open loop system can only correct the rocket's attitude, not deviations from the planned flight path. A closed loop system can correct both, because it senses and determines the rocket's position in space. It amounts to an autonomous navigation system.

So while India's program with Germany, called APC-Rex for Autonomous Payload Control Rocket Experiment, was developing autonomous navigation for a satellite, India would develop autonomous navigation for its own rockets. India would need a brain for its space rockets' new closed loop system, which it would provide by developing the "Mark-II" onboard processor - "based on [the] Motorola 6800 microprocessor with 16-bit word length" - the same as that used in the German program. (Although Indian reports repeatedly refer to the Motorola "6800," according to Motorola the 16-bit chip is the M 68000.) The timing of subsequent events showed continued parallel developments in the two programs.

The German aid in guidance is apparently continuing, despite the Agni launch. In May 1989, a DLR official said that "the APC-Rex program has not yet been concluded, but it will come to an end in 1989."[8] West Germany was one of the seven countries that adopted the Missile Technology Control Regime in 1987, an agreement not to export items useful in making long-range missiles. That agreement barred the export of technology capable of real-time processing of navigation data, unless specific assurances could be given that the technology would not be used for, or transferred to, missile programs. If, as the evidence suggests, technology from APC-Rex has been used in India's rocket and missile programs, Germany may have violated the agreement.

India has not described the Agni guidance system. But when the missile was assembled in 1988, Indian rocket scientists had studied and developed only one brain for rocket guidance: the German system based on the Motorola microprocessor and its software. Over a decade, Germany's guidance tutorial helped India build and test a navigation package based on that system. Did that system go into the Agni, or did India invent from scratch some other system, not mentioned in any Indian space program report? If the latter, did the Indian rocket scientists block from their minds everything they had learned from the Germans? The evidence is strong that the Agni owes its brain to German engineering.

Interchangeable parts:

The Indian space program first mentions the Agni in its 1982-83 annual report as a booster rocket for the Polar Space Launch Vehicle: six identical Agni boosters will lift the missile's first stage. The boosters, in turn, are adaptations of the first stage of the SLV-3.[9] Indeed, the SLV-3 is the only large booster motor that India has: it carries nine tons of solid propellant, as does the Agni first stage; no other Indian booster carries anything close to that amount. India has used the same booster to lift the Advanced Space Launch Vehicle.[10] After the Agni launch a number of sources, Indian as well as foreign, reported that the Agni first stage was identical to the SLV-3 first stage. Thus, the main rocket for India's missile program has come from India's space program.

This same rocket, in turn, owes much to German help. Wind tunnels are essential to the design of any rocket. In 1974-75, DLR tested a model of the first stage of the SLV-3 in its wind tunnel at Cologne-Portz. DLR also helped India build rocket test facilities, furnishing a complete facility design and training Indian engineers in high-altitude testing. India has said it will use this technology to test the liquid-fueled upper stage of the Polar Space Launch Vehicle, and it may already have done so. India may also have used it to test the Agni's liquid-fueled second stage, which must have been tested somewhere.

In June 1988, two Egyptian military officers were indicted for trying to smuggle carbon fiber composites out of the United States. Export of the composites was strictly controlled: the strong, lightweight, heat-resistant materials were being used for the nozzles and the nosecone of the MX, Trident, and Minuteman nuclear missiles.

But DAR began giving Indian scientists on-the-job training in composites at Stuttgart and Braunschweig in the mid-1970s. Subjects ranged from "glass fibre reinforced plastics via impregnated materials" to "carbon fibre reinforced composites." The Indians learned "composition, manufacturing processes, quality control, and error detection."

The German training allowed India to make rocket nozzles and nosecones of its own, which could be for either missiles or space launchers. To help the Indians use the composites, DAR supplied the documentation for a precision filament-winding machine, which India built and commissioned in 1985-86.

After the Agni test, Prime Minister Gandhi affirmed that one of the goals was to test "atmospheric reentry." Lower-ranking officials were more specific. They said that the goal was to test a "domestically developed heat shield."[11]

Target: China

No country, including India, has ever spent money on long-range rockets simply to explore space. The "satellites" launched by the SLV-3 were little more than flight monitors, used to transmit data on rocket performance, which was India's true interest. To launch real satellites, India could and did hire other providers of that service. The Soviets launched India's first two satellites; France's Ariane rocket and the U.S. space shuttle have launched others.

Nor has any country developed long-range missiles simply to deliver conventional bombs. The large cost of missile development is only justified by the ability to inflict strategic blows, which conventional warheads cannot do.

The Agni, therefore, can only be interpreted as a step toward a long-range nuclear strike force. As India progresses in guidance, the Agni's range should extend gradually to most targets in China.

India apparently has the material and skill to mass produce the Agni and arm it with nuclear warheads. The result will be a new nuclear equation in Asia. Across a common border, nuclear-armed rivals will confront each other, each with missiles, one or both vulnerable to a first strike from the other.

When India exploded an atomic bomb in 1974, the world was shocked. India had taken a Canadian reactor and U.S. heavy water both imported under guarantees of peaceful use and used them openly to make plutonium for a nuclear blast. That blast destroyed illusions about the "peaceful atom" and prompted changes in nuclear export policy. It is not surprising that India has again taken advantage of civilian imports and technology to further what appears to be a nuclear weapons program. What is surprising is that, given India's record, it was so easy.

How a Satellite Guidance System gets into a missile:

(Excerpts from program reports)

1982 - 83

APC-Rex (German-Indian missile program satellite guidance program): received Motorola 68000 microprocessor

Indian space and missile program: "An engineering model of the Mark-ll based on the Motorola 6800 [sic] has been integrated and exhaustive tests are being carried out."

1983 - 84

APC-Rex (German-Indian missile program satellite guidance program): "Development of an on-board computer for autonomous payload control is in progress."

Indian space and missile program: "Design review was conducted on inertial navigation systems with the participation of international experts."

1984 - 85

APC-Rex (German-Indian missile program satellite guidance program): "Design of the on-board [guidance] packages was completed."

Indian space and missile program: "Design of on-board processors for SLV based on 16-bit microprocessors has been completed."

1986 - 87

APC-Rex (German-Indian missile program satellite guidance program): "Development and validation of hardware and software packages for APC-Rex are in their final stages."

Indian space and missile program: "Breadboard models of on-board computers based on microprocessors have been realized."

Sources:

1. P.D. Bhavsar et al., "Indian Sounding Rocket Program," Proceedings of the 4th Sounding Rocket Technology Conference (Boston: American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics, June 23-26,1976), pp. 101-07.

2. Letter from Arnold W. Frutkin, assistant administrator for international affairs, NASA, to Homi J. Bhabha, chairman, Indian Atomic Energy Commission, March 10, 1965.

3. Steven R. Weisman, "U.S. Clears Vital Gyroscope for Indian Jet Fighter," New York Times, April 7, 1988, p. A12.

4. David Velupillai, "ISRO, India's Ambitious Space Agency," Flight International (June 28, 1980), p. 1466.

5. "India's Agni Success Poses New Problems," Jane's Defence Weekly (June 3,1989), p. 1052.

6. Many of the following details of the German-Indian space program are found in the proceedings of a January 27, 1982, colloquium of the DAR (then called DFVLR) and the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) in Bangalore, India, "A Decade of Cooperation in the Field of Space Research and Technology," and in annual reports of the Indian government's Department of Space.

7. Ted Greenwood, Qualitative Improvements in Offensive Strategic Arms: The Case of the MARV(Cambridge: Center for International Studies, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Aug. 1973), p. 278.

8. Letter from Dietmar Wurzel, head of DAR's Washington, D.C., office, to Gary Milhollin, May 1, 1989.

9. "India The Way Forward," Spaceflight (Dec.1986), p. 434.

10. "India Aims for Self-Sufficiency in Space," Flight International (June 14,1986), p. 45.

11. Barbara Crossette, "India Reports Successful Test of Mid-Range Missile," New York Times, May 22, 1989, p. A9.

WPoNAC

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