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'Earliest writing' found

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'Earliest writing' found:

Image: 5500 Year Old Pottery

The first known examples of writing may have been unearthed at an archaeological dig in Pakistan.

So-called 'plant-like' and 'trident-shaped' markings have been found on fragments of pottery dating back 5500 years.

They were found at a site called Harappa in the region where the great Harappan or Indus civilisation flourished four and a half thousand years ago.

Harappa was originally a small settlement in 3500 BC but by 2600 BC it had developed into a major urban centre.

The earliest known writing was etched onto jars before and after firing. Experts believe they may have indicated the contents of the jar or be signs associated with a deity.

According to Dr Richard Meadow of Harvard University, the director of the Harappa Archaeological Research Project, these primitive inscriptions found on pottery may pre-date all other known writing.

Last year it was suggested that the oldest writing might have come from Egypt.

Clay tablets containing primitive words were uncovered in southern Egypt at the tomb of a king named Scorpion.

They were carbon-dated to 3300-3200 BC. This is about the same time, or slightly earlier, to the primitive writing developed by the Sumerians of the Mesopotamian civilisation around 3100 BC.

"It's a big question as to if we can call what we have found true writing," he told BBC News Online, "but we have found symbols that have similarities to what became Indus script.

"One of our research aims is to find more examples of these ancient symbols and follow them as they changed and became a writing system," he added.

One major problem in determining what the symbols mean is that no one understands the Indus language. It was unique and is now dead.

Dr Meadow points out that nothing similar to the 'Rosetta Stone' exists for the Harappan text.

The Rosetta Stone, housed in the British museum since 1802, is a large slab of black basalt uniquely inscribed with the same text in both Egyptian hieroglyphs and Greek.

Its discovery allowed researchers to decipher the ancient Egyptian script for the first time.

The Harappan language died out and did not form the basis of other languages.

"So probably we will never know what the symbols mean," Dr Meadow told BBC News Online from Harappa.

What historians know of the Harappan civilisation makes them unique. Their society did not like great differences between social classes or the display of wealth by rulers. They did not leave behind large monuments or rich graves.

They appear to be a peaceful people who displayed their art in smaller works of stone.

Their society seems to have petered out. Around 1900 BC Harappa and other urban centres started to decline as people left them to move east to what is now India and the Ganges.

This discovery will add to the debate about the origins of the written word.

It probably suggests that writing developed independently in at least three places - Egypt, Mesopotamia and Harappa between 3500 BC and 3100 BC.

BBC

To me it looks like the Flintstones' Sony VAIO computer! :)

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Asalam O alaikum,

I am not a geneologist but I read somewhere that there is a very strong possibility emerging from the current on going geneology project of National Geographics that the first human instead of migrating out of Africa to the rest of the world, might have originated in Pakistan and spread through to the west and was the forefathers of the Caucasians, Asians and Arabs.

So theoretically our land carries the possibility of being the cradle of human race.

Wasalam

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Asalamo-a-laikum.

HA! HA! BRILLIANT!!! I am sure all the 'Paki Bashers' will love that if it is proved to be correct.

I've been to the site at Harrappa. It's sadly poorly protected and the locals occasionally loot the place. The protection needs to be stepped up. I know somebody who found a small ceramic ball and a little animal figurine. He has since lost them bosth which is pathetic considering they were relatively safe for thousands of years and then destroyed in such a short time. Not to mention the financial and heritage loss.

It's very evocative to stand near the ruins though, especially around sunset when you can imagine what it was like when it was up and running.

Enough babbling, but you should all go and see it.

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It may not only be happening in Harappa but other places too. Few years ago some site was accidentally discovered by locals in Sindh and all the artifacts were being freely sold to the highest bidder.

I think we need to have a strong economy; to have enough resources, and then a strong will and pride to protect all these priceless items in our country.

Why should we not feel hurt if thousands of years old Juniper tree in Balochistan is cut to cook breakfast? Why should we not care if a unique species of fish, birds, animals, or insects become inbred or extinct? Similarly, why should we not build the best museums in the world to properly display all these artifacts that we find at these sites?

Just imagine the number of additional tourists who may visit Pakistan to view these thousands of years old sites. If GoP has a serious plan, even loans may be used to build these museums. Visitors could be ticketed to pay back the loans just like toll is collected on the highways to pay for their construction.

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It may not only be happening in Harappa but other places too. Few years ago some site was accidentally discovered by locals in Sindh and all the artifacts were being freely sold to the highest bidder.

I think we need to have a strong economy; to have enough resources, and then a strong will and pride to protect all these priceless items in our country.

Why should we not feel hurt if thousands of years old Juniper tree in Balochistan is cut to cook breakfast? Why should we not care if a unique species of fish, birds, animals, or insects become inbred or extinct? Similarly, why should we not build the best museums in the world to properly display all these artifacts that we find at these sites?

Just imagine the number of additional tourists who may visit Pakistan to view these thousands of years old sites. If GoP has a serious plan, even loans may be used to build these museums. Visitors could be ticketed to pay back the loans just like toll is collected on the highways to pay for their construction.

Asalam O alaikum,

You are spot on Saeed sahib,

What we need to do is to protect these sites first.

We have so many important bhudist sites located inourland, if we can protect and develop them we can attract many people from oriental countries to visit them.

I hope and pray that this will happen in the near future Inshallah.

Wasalam

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Asalam O alaikum again,

I found the reference about the Proto-indo-Europeans who lived in Indus Valley Civilisation and Punjab (both are in Pakistan) who migrated to the west and gave rise to Caucasion, Asian and Middle Eastern race.

So we are the cradle of human race.:cool:

Here is the extract:

Neolithic and Bronze Age Indian history is periodized into the Pre-Harappan (ca. 7000 to 3300 BC), Early Harappan (3300 to 2600), Mature Harappan (2600 to 1900) and Late Harappan (1900 to 1300 BC) periods.

The timeline of the breakup of Proto-Indo-European, according to what Elst (1999) calls the "emerging non-invasionist model" is as follows: During the 6th millennium BC, the Proto-Indo-Europeans were living in the Punjab region of Northern India. As the result of demographic expansion, they spread into Bactria as the Kambojas. The Paradas moved further and inhabited the Caspian coast and much of Central Asia while the Cinas moved northwards and inhabited the Tarim Basin in northwestern China, forming the Tocharians group of I-E speakers. These groups were Proto-Anatolian and inhabited that region by 2000 BC. These people took the oldest form of the Proto Indo-European (PIE) language with them and, while interacting with people of the Anatolian and Balkan region, transformed it into its own dialect. While inhabiting Central Asia they discovered the uses of the horse, which they later sent back to Urheimat.[15] Later on during their history, they went on to take Western Europe and thus spread the Indo-European languages to that region.[15] During the 4th millennium BC, civilization in India was evolving to become the urban Indus Valley Civilization. During this time, the PIE languages evolved to Proto-Indo-Iranian[15] Some time during this period, the Indo-Iranians began to separate as the result of internal rivalry and conflict, with the Iranians expanding westwards towards Mesopotamia and Persia, these possibly were the Pahlavas. They also expanded into parts of Central Asia. By the end of this migration, India was left with the Proto-Indo-Aryans. At the end of the Mature Harappan period, the Sarasvati river began drying up and the remainder of Indo-Aryans split into separate categories. Some travelled westwards and became the Mitanni people by around 1500 BC. The Mitanni are known for their links to Vedic culture, after assimilating and establishing a presence in the Hurrian homeland, they established a culture very similar to that of Vedic India. Thus the Mitanni language is still considered Indo-Aryan. Others travelled eastwards and inhabited the Gangetic basin while others travelled southwards and interacted with the Dravidian people.[15]

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Asalam O alaikum,

Here is something on the tourism front.

Picturesque valley Bamburet of Kalash opening up shortly for tourists

PESHAWAR, June 17 (APP): Most picturesque valley - Bamburet-inhabited by Kalash tribe is going to be opened up for the first time to the local as well as foreign tourists in connection with the Visit Pakistan Year-2007.Bamburet is situated some 40 kilometers from Chitral and connected by only narrow road. The green fields, gushing rivers, beautiful lakes and plenty of natural beauty add to the charm and attraction of this valley."We are gathering all coins to facilitate the local and foreign tourists who come from across the world to visit and study the social and ethnic life style of the Kafir-Kalash", said Secretary NWFP for Tourism, Culture and Sports Abdul Jalil Khan.

The government is finalizing ways and means to make the valley accessible to the tourists and provide them adequate facility during their stay here, added Mr Khan.

The tourists will find Tourists Facilitation Center (TFC) with much improved Motel, carrying beautiful reception lounge and a restaurant offering continental and Pakistani dishes, he said.

Creation of motel facility at Bamburet is a major initiative taken by PTDC besides five kanals belt for TFC, rooms, entertainment facilities like swings, food and all such things are part of the program to promote tourism in remote areas, he added.

It would certainly be regarded as one of the attractive tourist destination, he hoped adding that the Chitral Valley located at an elevation of 1,128 meters is one of the most popular spots amongst mountaineers, anglers, hunters, hikers, naturalists and anthropologists.

He disclosed that the 7,705 meters Tirich Mir, the highest peak of the Hindukush Mountains, dominates this 322 kilometers long exotic valley. The Chitral district has Afghanistan at its north, south and west, a narrow strip of Afghan territory, Wakhan, separates it from Tajikistan, he added.

The tourist season in Chitral is from June-September. Chitral, the largest district of the North West Frontier Province (NWFP), is one place in the scenic land where people are known for their soft-spoken gesture and hospitality.

While unveiling the details, he said "One of the major attractions of Chitral, is the famous Kalash valley - the home of the Kafir-Kalash or "Wearers of the Black Robes", a primitive pagan tribe and their ancestry enveloped in mystery.

A legend says that five soldiers of the legions of Alexander of Macedonia settled in Chitral and is the progenitors of the Kafir-Kalash. Kalash is a familiar feature of the region; these tribes are in contrast to rest of the country.

Their culture, religion, customs and habitat are unique and appealing. Over 3,000-strong Kafir-Kalash live in the valley of Birir, Bumburet and Rambur, south of Chitral while Bumburet, the largest and the most picturesque valley of the Kafir-Kalash and Birir and Rambur are located at a distance of 34 and 40 kms respectively from Chitral.

"There is centuries' old tradition and culture and a real attraction for the local as well as foreign tourists but it is not properly highlighted to the world and we want to do this", Khan added.

The Kalash are a friendly and cheerful bunch that love music and dancing, particularly on their religious festivals like Joshi Chilimjusht to be held in the mid of December.

Polo is the most popular sport of Chitral and it holds similar importance amongst the Chitral & Gilgit populations. Polo matches are great attractions and festive occasions for all tourists.

Even if you don't have a knack for this game you will surely love the atmosphere it creates. A regular Polo tournament is the main feature. Polo at roof-top (Shandur) is held every year in the first week of July at Shandur Pass, he added.

He said that the government is trying hard to enhance its attraction for the tourists like trekking in the valleys as it has known trekking peaks like Thui-Ann Pass (4500m), Shahjinali Pass (4259m), DARKUT Pass (4575m),CHILINJI Pass (5160m), ASUMBAR Pass (4400m), KARUMBER Pass (4343m), OWIR pass (4338m), UWIN Pass (3840m), BAROGHIL Pass (3,798m), DAINTER Pass (3660m).

He said that they had restructured and rationalized the budget as now it decreased to Rs 6.9 million from earlier Rs 9.8 million annually because of own resources. The Sarhad Tourism Corporation (STC) had opened Dounga Gali and leased out Kund Park, which have been generating Rs. 2 million annually besides forming of TFC, upgrading restaurants.

Till-date five TFC have been working besides four more in the pipeline in order to facilitate the tourists, he disclosed.

He said, they are now self-sufficient and the amount is touching Rs 10 million marks. With such development we had things in mind to prepare a force of technocrats besides up- grade the life-style of the workers associated with tourism. We have God gifted sites but we had failed in highlight or attract the tourists from across the world, he said.

He said that they had adopted various measures for the employees as well so that they should take more pain as far as tourism is concerned. We had planned to have a teentage village on the land at Bamburet besides it has all sort of facilities like TFC, cafeteria, doctor, furnished rooms and a mini-museum.

Besides holding of seminar at Abbottabad in the mid of June regarding Kalasha festival, the event will follow Shindur polo in July, Cycle Rally from Naran to Babo Sir in August.

For the promotion of tourist a web site has been developed and work is in progress for the documentary of the scenic site of NWFP.

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One million year old footprint!

One million year old footprints found at Margalla Hills:

Islamabad, Saturday July 28, 2007: In what appears to be a major discovery, archaeologists have found two over one million years old human footprints preserved on a sandstone at the Margalla Hills.

The Indusians Research Cell, which is working under the supervision of world renowned archaeologist and historian Dr Ahmad Hassan Dani of Taxila Institute of Asian Civilisations, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, has made the discovery, which is likely to add a new chapter to the archaeological history and heritage of the federal capital and attract visitors.

A footprint of 1 feet (12 inches or 1 foot) is in complete and well preserved form while another is broken from the finger side which is also of the same size in comparative manner. The notable marks of the feet are the clear veins and opposite folded appearance.

“A huge stone on the top of the hill is the secure home of these prints since about over one million years ago,” says A. K. Azad, an archaeologist and head of the project.

Further research may give more clues of the foot marks through anthropological and geophysical methods, he observed.

The recent discovery is the continuity of the Indusian Research Cell’s earlier research about human evolution which previously revealed a fossilised upper jaw from the site of Dhudhumber, foot and hand prints from Attock and Palaeolithic cave from Margalla hills.

Pakistan’s geomorphologic research was conducted to compare with the Alps of Europe during the period of 1930-1939 by a French mission. Since then, lots of other dimensions of the research opened the doors of scientific research in Pakistan as the country provided the glacial sequence, fossilised evidences of Pre-Cambrian to Holocene epochs, earliest evidences of the anthropoid existence, earliest cultural centre at Mehargarh (contemporary of Jericho and Jarmo) and most advanced civilisation of the world (Indus valley).

Indusians Research Cell started the second phase of the project “Post-earthquake Explorations of Human Remains in Margalla Hills” under the supervision of A.K. Azad.

According to Mr Azad the formation of the Margalla Hills goes back to the Miocene epoch. The dominant limestone of the Margalla is also mixed with the sand stone.

“So we can assume that due to availability of the water in ancient times many marks of the zoological as well botanical significance may lead to our objectives,” the young archaeologist hopes.

In 1976, Pakistan opened another chapter of human evolution, which makes case for Asian anthropoid origin from this region.

During the ‘60s and ‘70s, Pilbeam led expeditions to the Siwalik Hills badlands of northern Pakistan, searching for further Ramapithecine remains.

In March 1975 and January 1976 team members made surface recoveries of four bone fragments which fit together to form the most complete mandible recovered yet. The mandible shows that Ramapithecus did not have a parabolic, human like dental arcade, as originally thought, but rather a V-shaped, more apelike arcade. Though the shape of the arcade is not now regarded as one of the more anatomically important characters, Ramapithecus is no longer granted the high status that it once received.

Different scholars have defined the word ‘Potohar’ differently. But, anthropological research marked it, as the grand father of hominid, also known as Punjabicus found from the Potohar region.

So the government of Pakistan had given the name to this specie Potoharmans. :)

According to Mr Azad, the problem of human evolution is still hanging around that when and where Anthropoid got physical changes from the Apes?

After India, Kenya and China, he says important discovery was from the Potohar region from fossils of the similar species found in 1976 and 1982. The probable dating given to this specie was 20 million years.

“It has provided a missing link, which was spread of 6 million years. So Potoharmans declared as the grand father of hominid, which evolved from the different stages and reached at the Homo sapiens,” he observes.

The stories behind the similar marks are also significant in mythical associations with saints and renowned people i.e. hand prints of the Baba Guru Nanik near Hassanabdal, foot prints of Hazrat Ali in Hyderabad, foot prints of the Guru Padma Sambhava (Second reincarnation of Buddha) in Swat, Adam’s peak of Sri Lanka etc.

“If these are true than we can also claim of the mother Eve’s foot prints from Margalla Hills,” Mr Azad observed.

D

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Peshawar, Tuesday, June 29, 2010: Police officials recovered huge quantity of antiques during raid at a house at Yakatoot area:

Stolen antiques 01

Stolen antiques 02

Stolen antiques 03

Stolen antiques 04

Stolen antiques 05

Please ignore the watermark and observe the quality of these antiques. If we don’t wakeup soon, we may loose everything of value in this country. Are they now going to let go the person who was responsible for stealing even the history of our country? :mad:

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Threatened rock carvings of Pakistan:

By Suhail Yusuf

Image: 3-D Collage Rock Art - 01

A collage of carvings and inscriptions of different periods shows the heritage on the brink of destruction as the proposed site of the Diamer-Basha Dam hosts some 30,000 ancient art carvings and inscriptions which may vanish forever.

Wednesday, May 18, 2011: Pakistan is going to lose one of the most precious rock art carvings due to construction of the Diamer-Basha Dam. The proposed site of the dam hosts some 30,000 ancient art carvings and inscriptions which may vanish forever due to the construction of this reservoir.

The northern area of Pakistan is a mountainous region which lies between the western Himalayas, the Korakoram in the east and the Hindukush in the west. Here, the junction of the ancient routes made the upper Indus a cradle and crossroads of different civilizations.

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The junction of the ancient routes made the upper Indus a cradle and crossroads of different civilizations.

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Travelers, invaders, merchants, pilgrims and artisans from different ages and cultures used the legendary silk route and its branches to enter in the region. Many of them left their cultural and religious signs on the rocks, boulders and cliffs.

The sun-tanned smooth rocks attracted more visitors and settlers to carve their own signs, symbols, inscriptions and artworks on the same locations. And hence, gradually a rock art archive accumulated in the area and eventually became a wonderland of some 50,000 rock carvings and 5,000 inscriptions from different civilizations ranging from the 8th millennium BC to the coming of Islam (since the 16th century AD) in the region.

The diversity of the rock carvings in the region turned the area into one of the most important rendezvous of petroglyphs in the world.

The history of discoveries:

In 1884, a Hungarian traveler, Karl Eugen discovered a Buddhist carving in present Baltistan. In 1907, a veteran explorer, Ghulam Muhammad unveiled another Buddhist petroglyph from the Diamer district.

When the 750 km long, Karakorum Highway (the modern Silk Road) inaugurated in 1978, thousands of more engravings came to view which inspires a German scholar, Karl Jettmar to further explore the rock art wealth.

In 1980, Karl Jettmar and Pakistan’s father of archaeology, Ahmed Hassan Dani launched a Pak-German study group to systematically investigate the ancient rock art in the region.

Another research project entitled “Rock Carvings and Inscriptions along the Karakorum Highway” was initiated in 1983. The Heidelberg Academy of Humanities and Sciences and the Department of Archaeology of Gilgit were responsible for the study group. Professor Harald Hauptmann has been the head of the project since 1989 as a successor of Jettmar.

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This area is also famous for the amazing story of mysterious Gold-digging Ants. Greek historian, Herodotus (in 5th century BC) wrote (Historia III, 102-105) about the land of Dardai, where Gold-digging Ants – “bigger than fox, though not so big as a dog were used to collect gold particles.”

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Talking Rocks:

The Shatial, Thor, Hodur, Thalpan, Naupura, Chaghdo and other sites of northern Pakistan having clusters of carvings but the Basha-Diamer area holds thousands of very important rock carvings.

A total of 37,051 carvings on 5,928 boulders or rock faces will be inundated after the construction of the Diamer-Basha Dam.

The site represents hundreds of inscriptions in Brahmi, Sogdian, middle Persian, Chinese, Tibetan and even ancient Hebrew languages. Some 80% of the writings are in Brahmi language.

Image: Brahami Inscriptions.

These writings not only provide insights into the religious and political situation but also show the name of the rulers and a rough date of the time. These details of the inscriptions helped the experts arrange them chronologically.

One of the interesting Brahmi inscriptions can be read as; Martavyam Smartavyam, which means: “(Always) remember that (one day) you must die.”

Image: Ancient Rock Art.

This prehistoric Caprine depiction was discovered in Chilas.

The earliest rock carvings in northern Pakistan dates back to the 9th millennium BC (roughly late Stone Age). Wild animals and hunting scenes are commonly found in this era but the hunter himself was never found.

Image: Demons.

The mysterious “Giant Figures” represents the demons, deities or supernatural beings. More than 50 such carvings have been discovered in the area.

The following Bronze Age petroglyphs represent the most spectacular carvings of giants. These life size male giant figures with stretched arms could be assumed to be images of ghosts, demons, deities or gods. Some 50 such carvings have been discovered in northern areas but all the giants have no facial features.

In the 3rd millennium BC, agriculture started in the region and carvings of horses were observed for first time. Then in the beginning of the 1st millennium BC, the area witnessed invasions by new ethnic groups such as the Sakan tribes. They carved sketches of Eurasian animals, most of them very interesting, bizarre and mythical in nature.

Later, another bunch of carvings appeared representing more mythical creatures, horses and warriors with Persian attire. These depicted the Iranian influence in the region and the expansion of Achaemenid Empire in 6th century BC.

The Golden era of Buddhism:

In the 1st century AD, Buddhism emerged in the area as new belief system and reached its peak between the 5th and 8th century. Many spectacular carvings of Buddha and stupas – sacred buildings – and related inscriptions were found carved in the same era.

Image: Buddha Stupa.

The beautiful carvings of two Buddhas flanking a stupa.

According the Hauptmann, the historic period of early Buddhism started from this area because of findings of old Indian style Khorashti language or Sanskrit. The venerations of Buddha and names of different kings show the climax of Buddhism in this area.

Although addressing Pakistan’s energy crisis is an urgent need and the Basha Dam would help bridge the gap between the demand and supply of power, the conservation and mitigation of these carvings is also very important.

Hauptmann said, “We (as an archaeologist) have to respect the decision (to build the dam) but it is very sad for us to lose one of the most rich and diverse rock art provinces of the world.”

According to Hauptmann, the Basha Dam will drown 32 villages and displace more than 25,000 people.

He added that some 3,000 very important stupas and similar number of drawings will be submerged after the construction of the dam. He called to establish a cultural center in Gilgit where original and replicas of the carvings could be preserved along with scientific documents about the geography, history, languages, music, wildlife and other aspects of the northern areas.

This center could be a rendezvous for scholars, writers, visitors and for future generation to discover the exciting history of the region.

Gold-digging Ants:

This area is also famous for the amazing story of mysterious gold-digging ants.

Greek historian, Herodotus (in 5th century BC) wrote (Historia III, 102-105) about the land of Dardai, where gold-digging ants – “bigger than fox, though not so big as a dog were used to collect gold particles.”

Later, other historians and writers such as Arrian, Claudius Aelianus, Ktesias, and Plinius shed some light on this amazing tale that fox-sized fuzzy “ants” were found in far eastern India in a region with yellow sand rich in gold particles.

The creatures piled up the dust and dirt while digging up the burrows where people would collect them to extract gold.

In 1854, Alexander Cunningham mentioned the fact that “the sands of the Indus have long been celebrated for the production of gold.”

In 1984, a French ethnologist Michel Peissel wrote a book named, “The Ants’ Gold: The Discovery of the Greek El Dorado in the Himalayas”. Peissel suggested that Herodotus actually mentioned the Deosai Plateau of Pakistan in the story of gold-digging ants.

He said that not ants but (Himalayan) marmot used to dig deep burrows and pile large amount of sand. He further wrote that Deosai Plateau is rich in gold particles where marmot were found in abundance and thus solved the thousands-of-years-old gold-ant puzzle.

Peissel also claimed to interview Minaro, Maruts or Sonival tribes of Deosai Plateau and they confirmed the gold collection procedure through marmots.

But why did Herodotus write about gold-digging ‘ants’? Peissel presented the theory that Herodotus was probably unaware of the Persian language and depended on local interpreters and never claimed to see any ants by himself. He was confused because the old Persian word for “marmot” was very similar to that for “mountain ant”.

The Management Plane:

Dr. Ayesha Pamela Rogers is the director of Rogers Kolachi Khan and Associates (RKK) and contracted by the Water and Power Development Authority (Wapda) for the Heritage Impact Assessment survey and report for the dam.

RKK launched its first report in 2009 as a long term comprehensive management plan to safeguard the heritage and help the people affected by the building of the reservoir.

Rogers agreed that some 30,000 carvings on 5,000 rocks will be affected. Some of them will be totally submerged; others will be seasonally under water and then exposed when water level are low, she assessed.

“Other (rock carvings) will be seasonally under water and then exposed when water levels are low, others which are now at high elevations will be close to the new shoreline. It means mitigation and conservation approaches are needed for this entire situation.

Other threats exist which are not related to the dam – many carvings are being vandalised as we speak – and new risks will arise if and when tourism is developed. Again, all these need to be addressed in a management plan,” she added.

She further said that Wapda is committed to this project and preserving whatever it can.

The pages of history, language and religion have been carved on the upper Indus rocks and they have been talking to humanity for hundred of years. An urgent and comprehensive plan is needed to preserve them for the world and for the generations to come.

Image: 3-D Collage Rock Art - 02

D

____________________ : o : ____________________

In Egypt they moved giant sized statues and the surrounding structures to higher elevation when the Aswan Dam was being built on the River Nile. Surely, we can move these rock carvings to a safer place too.

A museum needs to be built as soon as possible. High resolution maps and pictures are also needed to depict the exact location where these rock carvings were located.

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